Seismic Refraction

Seismic Refraction The seismic refraction method of geophysical surveying is one which measures the velocities of shock waves traveling through materials.  Shock waves are generated by an energy source such as hammer blows on a steel plate for very shallow depths or explosives for greater depths.  Through this method, basically two properties are determined,- (1) […]

Seismic Reflection

Geotronics using geophysical techniques like seismic reflection and seismic refraction to determine overburden, bedrock, and find minerals like gold.

Seismic Reflection There are two types of seismic surveys we have run for decades – refraction and reflection. Both types of seismic surveys work by measuring the travel time of energy from a surficial shot (usually an explosive in the case of refraction, and a hammer hitting a plate in reflection) to an array of […]

Ground Penetrating Radar

GPR or Ground Penetrating Radar is a geophysical technique to find minerals or bedrock and is used for placer, gold, or geology.

  Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Ground penetrating radar, or GPR, is in principle related to reflection seismic methods. A transmitter (Tx) emits a signal into the surface of investigation. The back-scattered signal is detected and registered by a receiver (Rx). In contrast to seismic methods, GPR uses electromagnetic waves instead of acoustic waves. EM-waves will […]